Schopenhauer and Buddhism by Bhikkhu Nanajivako (Kandy, Ceylon: the Buddhist Publication Society, 1970) informs the reader of English that the German philosopher drawing on I.J. Schmidt’s Geschichte der Ostmongolen admires the Buddhists for starting from contemplation of 4 vices and not 4 cardinal virtues.

In consequence of their deeper ethical and metaphysical views, the Buddhists start not from the cardinal virtues, but from the cardinal vices, […] the Buddhist cardinal vices are lust, idleness, anger and greed. [Nanajivako culls this gem from Schopenhauer’s Parerga and Paralipomena Volume II (1851).]

It is an amusing exercise to try and map the Buddhist vices onto the Occidental virtues: courage, temperance, justice and prudence. I get as far as aligning “anger” and “courage” and possibly “idleness” and “temperance” and it falls apart from there.

Of course Buddhist literature names a host of virtues where they are referred to as perfections.

And so for day 899

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